Classical Kerma, ca. 1750-1550 BC
The area to the south of Egypt between the 1st and 4th cataract was occupied since the 5th millennium B.C. and was closely interconnected through trade with its neighbour to the north during war and peace times.
At ca. 3800 B.C. there exited in Lower Nubia the so called A-Group culture which stood in close relation to the Nagada II culture in upper Egypt. The first warlike raids by Egyptian pharaohs in ca. 2800 B.C. lead to the demise of the A-Group people which were followed by the so called C-Group culture in ca. 2400 B.C. The archaeological vacuum between 2800 and 2400 was filled in Upper Nubia by the Pre-Kerma culture from which developed the Middle and Classic Kerma Culture (1750-1500 B.C.). The pharaohs of the New Kingdom (1540-1292 B.C.) conquer
Nubia and thereby end the independence of the Kerma Culture.
Most of the ceramics showing the quality and variety of the vessels, produced by a special method developed by people of the Kerma culture, was found in graves. The eggshell-like ceramic with highly polished red surface and black polished rim decoration, as for example the beaker shown here, is particularly characteristic.
Meroitic; 2nd century BC
ca. 643-623 BC
H 21,5 x 9,3 x 8,6 cm
Necklace and Ankh-signs
1st century BC
Gold, fused glass
Inv.-No. 22874-75, 22877
1st century BC
Gold, fused glass
Height 4,5 cm
In the cache of Ferlini there were nine so-called 'shield-rings' found. One of these rings is made of a sheet of gold decorated with gold wire, attached granules as well as fused glass. A solid 3-dimensional cast ram head, representing the god Amun wearing a complicated crown made up of a sundisc, uraeus and double feather flanked by two winged goddesses, has been attached in the middle.
Reliefs from Temple 200 in Naga
ca. 50 BC. - 50 AD.
ca. 250 cm x 200 cm
Inv.-No. Z 40020, Z 20019, Z 40020
Bark Stand of king Natakamani und Queen Amanitore
ca. 1-25 AD
Wad Ban Naga (Sudan)
Height 116 cm, width 84 cm
The Prussian Expedition lead by Richard Lepsius visited the site of Wad Ben Naga near the 6th cataract in 1844. There they found a destroyed temple in which three sandstone altars were still in place. The largest one was transported to the Berlin Museum.
The block represents a chapel and served as a stand for the bark of the god or for his cult statue. The four sides are decorated with figurative panels, at top with a horizontal hieroglyph representing a star filled sky. The sky is supported by two female goddesses and by the king and queen. The queen Amanitore is shown with short hair and voluminous body representing the Meroitic ideal in contrast to the more egyptianized goddess with the slim body and the long hair.
In front and behind the king and queen, the names are written, in cartouches. Unique is that one of the names, the throne name is written in Egyptian hieroglyphs, the birth name is written in Meroitic hieroglyphs however in the longer vertical inscription the birth name is again written in Egyptian hieroglyphs - a true (albeit small) bilingual!
Despite ongoing studies the language remains, due to a lack of longer bilingual texts until now, undeciphered.